Oceanography 201 Notes

Robert Ballard

Robert Ballard
18:17 Filmed 3-08
Oceanography and its progress.

David Gallo

David Gallo
5:25 Filmed 3-07
Bioluminescent fish and amazing cephalopods.

Richard Pyle

Richard Pyle
16:51 Filmed 2-04
Exploring with mixed gas scuba.

Charles Moore

Charles Moore
7:23 Filmed 2-09
The problem of plastics in our oceans.

TED lConference ogo

Ocenography Book

The Big Bang aprox 13.7 Billion years ago.

The first surface on the earth aprox. 4.6 Billion years ago.

Oceans formed aprox.4 Billion years ago.

Pangaea (the Super continent)

The oceans may have coverd the earth ofr aprox. 200 Million years before any continents emerged.

Latitude (horizontal) and Longitude (vertical). Geographical coordinate systems.
Latitude one degree latitude = 60 nautical miles. 1 minute latitude = 1 natuical mile. Longitude zero is Greenich England 180 is the prine meridian.

John Harris developed chronographer (need for longitude calculations).

Vertical pole at Alexandria (aprox. 200 B.C.) calculated the eath to a sphere within 8 degrees.

Mid Ocean Ridge circles the earth. Abysal Plains (usually very muddy and flat). Sea Mounts (Guyots) flat on the top. Trenches very deep (11,022 M deep) contrast Mt. Everest (8,840 M high). Continental shelf has less than one degree of slope.

Convergent where two plates come toegther Divergent where two plates seperate.

Two kinds of crust: Ocean (Basalt) (not very dense) and Contienental (Granite) (very dense). Rock holds heat making the contiental crust warmer.

Three types of plate boundries.

Hot Vents (discovered by Alvin Sea of Cortez) Chemosytnesies (lots of sulfer) Cold Seeps

Radioactive Dating counts the samples half lifes. Different Radisotopes have different half lives.

Where did Oceans come from? About 4 billion yrs ago water vaper released by off gassing (condensed as rain) and comets hit earth & melted.

Prokaryotic (no cell nucleus) & Eukaryotic (have cell nucleus) Cells.

Light (waves) in the Ocean. Red is very readibly absorbed by water, while Blue survives the best. Light is converted into heat, and doesn't get below 3,000 Meters.

Sound (waves) in the Ocean. Average spped of sound 3,345 mph. Speed decreases with depth.

The test to determine the ammount of saltyness is called Chlorinity.

Eckman Spiral Model: Water driven by surface winds go arpx. 90 degrees to the right.

El Nino: Warm water builds in Austrailia until it cannot be contained and it travels east to hit south America. The geographic region experinces a change in weather pattern (southern oscilliation) until the warm water finally disipates and normal conditions return. La Nina: opposite.

Waves: Waves are the transfer of energy that have a circular motion.

Fetch: The ammount of undisturbed distance over which the wind blows.

Breaking wave have a "one to seven" height to width ratio.

Latitude - Horizontal

Longitude - Vertical